|Dr Indu Bansal|
Despite cancer being among the ten leading causes of deaths in India, it is still considered by many people as a remote disease that
cannot strike them. Even those who are aware of its implications, do little in their daily lives
to minimize the risks of contracting the disease.
As we observe the World Cancer Day, it is important to educate people about preventing cancer by cutting risk factors and leading a healthy life. A huge burden of cancer in India can be reduced if people are aware about risks and work systematically to minimize them in daily lives. Quitting tobacco and reducing alcohol intake are just two such measures that can go a long way to reduce your risk f suffering from cancer. Cancer monitoring and screening are other two measures that can radically boost chances of survival, and reduce cancer related deaths.
“Undoubtedly there is massive void of awareness, even among the relatively educated masses. Today, majority of the cases that come to the hospital are already in the last stages or at crucial stages, even for those cancers that can easily be treated if detected early. With greater awareness, people will be more serious about screening and monitoring. However, lack of awareness makes life not just difficult for the patient but also for the physicians treating them,” says Dr Indu Bansal, Consultant Oncology, Paras Hospitals, Gurgaon.
Cancer is a group of abnormal cells. They are often referred to as “mad cells”, “wayward cells” or “crazy cells”. The normal cells turn crazy, defy nature’s ways of propagation, and multiply rapidly, altering the normal functioning of the body. If this process goes unchecked, it has the capacity to migrate to any other part of body.
“Cancers like mouth cancer and lung cancer should be detected early and can be prevented by life style modifications; however trends show an exponential rise in the same. Breast Cancer and Cervical cancers are the other two types that can be detected through simple and cost effective tests like an ultrasound/mammography and a PAP Smear, however many women don’t even know the importance of the same,” adds Dr Bansal.
Experts say a bulk of the most common cancers can be prevented by targeting four major risk factors: reducing alcohol consumption, quitting smoking, adopting healthier diets and improving physical activity levels. At the same time, it is also important to protect from UV radiation by wearing sunscreen religiously. Cancer incidence can further be reduced if infections like HBV and HPV associated with liver and cervical cancers respectively are controlled with vaccinations.
According to WHO, five most common sites of cancer in men are lung, prostate, colorectum, stomach, and liver; while in women they are breast, colorectum, lung, cervix, and stomach.
Cancers are caused due to malfunction of the genes that control cell growth resulting in indiscriminate multiplication of the cells in the affected part of the body. However, the genetic abnormalities are mostly a result of mutations that occur in the genes due to a series of environmental factors.
How to Prevent?
According to World Health Organization around one third of cancer deaths occur are due to five leading behavioral and dietary risks: high body mass index, low fruit and vegetable intake, lack of physical activity, tobacco use, alcohol use. Naturally, dealing with these five risk factors can radically reduce the incidence of the disease.
•Eat Healthy: People with greater intake of meat are more susceptible to cancer (though being a vegetarian doesn’t guarantee zero risk). So, even as you relish your non vegetarian delicacies make sure you consume adequate amount of fruits and vegetables in your diet. Anti-oxidants are believed to reduce risk of cancer and other disease.
•Give Up Bad Habits: It may sound like a cliché, but quitting smoking and excessive drinking can prevent lung and liver cancers to a large degree. Over 1 million people die of tobacco cancer every year. Tobacco is responsible for 50% of all cancers
•Get your Body in Shape: If you are overweight, you have many reasons to worry. Excessive weight not just increases risk of cancer, but also makes you more prone to diabetes, heart disease, and arthritis of the knees. So, get yourself into the right body mass index.
•Exercise: If you are of normal body weight, this doesn’t mean you do not need to exercise. Lack of physical exercise is the reason behind a range of lifestyle diseases including cancer, in both overweight as well as thin people.
•Vaccination & Screening: Vaccination can save two major forms of cancer. Vaccinate yourself against human papilloma virus (HPV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). At the same time get yourself regularly screened for cancer to enable timely detection and treatment in case of a negative outcome.
Warning signals of Cancer: CAUTION US
•C hange in bowel or bladder habits
•A sore that does not heal
•U nusual bleeding or discharge
•T hickening or lump in breast or elsewhere
•I ndigestion or difficulty in swallowing
•O bvious change in wart or mole
•N agging cough or hoarseness of voice
•U nexplained anemia
•S udden and unexplained weight loss or fever